Campi Flegrei di Pozzuoli
Campi Flegrei is a vast area located in the Gulf of Pozzuoli, west of the city of Naples and its gulf. The area has been known since ancient times for its lively volcanic activity.
From a geological point of view, the area is a large caldera in a state of quiescence, with a diameter of 12-15 km, whose limits are given by the hill of Posillipo, from the Camaldoli hill, from the northern ridges of the crater of Quarto , the hill of Sanseverino, the acropolis of Cuma, and Monte di Procida. In this circuit there are numerous craters and small volcanic buildings, some of which have effusive or hydrothermal gaseous manifestations, as well as the cause of the phenomenon of bradyseism (very recognizable for its importance in the past in the so-called Temple of Serapis in Pozzuoli). Throughout the area are visible important deposits of volcanic origin such as the Gray Tuff Campano or the Yellow Tuff. In the area there are lakes of volcanic origin (Lake Averno) and coastal lakes originated by barrier.
In 2003, implementing the Regional Law of Campania n. 33 of 1.9.1993, the Regional Park of Campi Flegrei was established. The Phlegraean Fields are an area of high volcanic risk subject to constant surveillance by the Vesuvius Observatory, both through periodic survey campaigns and continuous monitoring.
Important areas of biological and natural value are Capo Miseno, the submerged Baia Park, Monte Nuovo and the Astroni Crater. The Campi Flegrei area is included in the municipalities of Bacoli, Monte di Procida, Pozzuoli, Quarto, Giugliano in Campania and Naples. In particular, the first three municipalities mentioned, which occupy the so-called Flegrea peninsula, are almost completely Flegrei. The municipality of Quarto extends for the most part in the Phlegraean fields. The municipality of Giugliano instead extends in the Phlegraean fields limited to the area of Licola Mare, which is part of the Lago Patria hamlet. Finally, in the Phlegraean fields, the western part of the municipality of Naples falls.
The Phlegraean islands of Ischia, Procida and Vivara are part of the Phlegraean Fields, although they are located outside the original crater. In addition, numerous other craters have been identified in the Gulf of Pozzuoli, sunk into the sea or disintegrated by it over the millennia.